In an effort to “significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change,” the agreement calls for limiting the increase in global average temperature this century to well below 2 degrees Celsius while making efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees. It also calls on countries to work towards flattening global greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible and to become climate neutral by the second half of this century at the latest. To achieve these targets, 186 countries responsible for more than 90% of global emissions presented carbon reduction targets known as “Nationally Determined Contributions” (INDCs) at the Paris conference. These targets outline each country`s commitments to reduce emissions (including maintaining carbon sinks) by 2025 or 2030, including macroeconomic carbon reduction targets and the individual commitments of around 2,250 cities and 2,025 companies. The agreement recognises the role of non-party actors in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane are gases that accumulate in the atmosphere and prevent heat from radiating from the Earth`s surface into space, creating the so-called greenhouse effect. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the leading international scientific body working on the issue, the concentration of these heat storage gases has increased dramatically since pre-industrial times to levels not seen in at least 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide (the main cause of climate change) has increased by 40%, nitrous oxide by 20% and methane by 150% since 1750 – mainly from the combustion of dirty fossil fuels. The IPCC says it is “extremely likely” that these emissions are mainly responsible for the rise in global temperatures since the 1950s. At the same time, deforestation and forest degradation have also contributed to their fair share of global carbon emissions. To counter climate change and its negative effects, 197 countries adopted the Paris Agreement at COP21 in Paris on 12 December 2015.
The agreement, which entered into force less than a year later, aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and limit the rise in global temperature to 2 degrees Celsius this century, while looking for ways to further limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The greenhouse gases emitted into power plants through the use of coal are CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). The five main factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions are listed in Fig. 2.1. When IPCC reports indicated that the stabilization objective would not be sufficient to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate system, the parties (governments) to the UNFCCC decided to formulate emission reduction commitments for developed countries in the form of a legal protocol, despite the problems they already had in stabilizing their emissions (e.g. Oberthür & Ott, 1999). Such a protocol to the UNFCCC was agreed in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997, which was therefore called the Kyoto Protocol. If this Protocol is ratified, industrialised countries, individually or jointly, shall reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by at least 5 % below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 commitment period (Article 3(1)). Now the White House formally accepts this goal.
But in announcing the marker in a phone call with reporters Wednesday night, government officials in particular did not provide any new details on exactly how the U.S. will achieve those cuts. The Kyoto Protocol can be seen as an important first step towards a truly global emissions reduction system that can stabilise greenhouse gas emissions and provide the architecture for the future international agreement on climate change. The NDC is a public commitment to fight climate change made by all countries that signed the 2015 Paris Agreement, which the United States officially left last year at the request of then-President Donald Trump, and resumed this year after Biden took office. INDCs become NDCs – Nationally Determined Contributions – once a country formally accedes to the agreement. There are no specific requirements on how countries should reduce their emissions or to what extent, but there have been political expectations regarding the nature and severity of the targets set by different countries. As a result, national plans vary considerably in scope and ambition, largely reflecting each country`s capacities, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has pledged to reduce its carbon emissions by 2030 at the latest and to reduce carbon emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 to 65 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels.
India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels by 2030. The ultimate goal of the UNFCCC is to “stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. at a level that would avoid dangerous anthropogenic interventions in the climate system.” Since a stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere can only be achieved if there is no net release of greenhouse gases, the ultimate objective of the Convention is to end greenhouse gas pollution. This is an ambitious goal that has proven difficult to achieve. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, to adopt a number of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human interference in Earth`s climate systems in the long term. The Pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions for each country and does not include enforcement mechanisms, but rather provides a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emission targets. Participating countries meet annually for a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to tackle climate change. Since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, emissions from developing countries have increased.
Countries such as China, India and Brazil have become major emitters of greenhouse gases (Figure 17.2). China now surpasses the United States in terms of greenhouse gas pollution. The rules of the game are therefore changing with regard to greenhouse gas emissions, with developing countries not covered by the Kyoto Protocol now accounting for a significant share of current and future emissions. International mechanisms must change to keep pace with these trends. Carbon reduction scenarios are associated with high costs. It is estimated that the Gross Domestic Product of the United States for 2010 will be reduced by about $400 billion to meet the requirements of the Protocol by 2010 without prohibiting emissions trading with less developed countries. Emission reductions can be achieved in several ways, para. B example by imposing a tax on carbon emissions, by completely switching from coal fuels to natural gas for electricity production and from oil to natural gas for transport, by limiting petrol consumption through oil price increases, etc. According to the EIA, compliance with the requirements of the protocol will increase average household energy costs by $1740 in 2010. These transparency and accountability provisions are similar to those of other international agreements. While the system does not involve financial sanctions, the requirements are aimed at easily tracking each nation`s progress and fostering a sense of global peer pressure, thus preventing any hesitation between countries considering doing so.
President Biden opened a global summit on climate change Thursday morning, announcing that the United States would halve its greenhouse gas emissions by the end of the decade, based on 2005 levels. To have a likely chance of keeping warming below 2 degrees Celsius, we need to achieve net-zero emissions here: the new International Paris Agreement on Climate Change aims to keep global warming well below 2 degrees C (3.6 degrees F) above pre-industrial levels and try to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees C (2.7 degrees F), to avoid the worst climate impacts. This temperature target is essential because the hotter it is, the greater the impact on the climate. However, it is difficult to communicate what needs to happen in different sectors to achieve this temperature target. As a result, the agreement also has a complementary long-term objective that gives investors and policymakers concrete guidance on what they need to do between now and when. All binding decisions under the Convention shall be taken by the Conference of the Parties. With 195 parties, this means that decision-making can take years. Some COPs are more important than others as important decisions evolve and a COP in which important decisions need to be taken becomes a turning point. This was the case at COP15, held in Copenhagen in 2009. At this COP, decisions were expected on what emission reduction commitments would look like after the end of the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2020. In the end, only preliminary progress was made at this COP.
International emissions trading. Emissions trading, as set out in Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have emission units – emissions allowed but not “used” – to sell these overcapacity to countries that exceed their targets. The result has been a new raw material in the form of emission reductions or reductions. Since carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas, people are simply talking about exchanging carbon. .